There have been a handful of supernovae in our own Milky Way galaxy which were observed and recorded by human civilizations in the past two millenia. This information is taken from Clark and Stephenson, "The Historical Supernovae." It may be hard to find, but it's a good source of information.
Below, I refer to "Type Ia" and "Type II" supernovae. These are two different types of explosions. Type Ia are slightly brighter, and occur when a white dwarf star sucks too much matter from the outer parts of a companion star, and suffers runaway thermonuclear reactions. Type II are a bit fainter, occuring when young, massive stars run out of nuclear fuel at their centers, collapse, and explode. You can read more about the differences at
So, here's the list!
SN 185 record from China (a single text) may have been visible for 8 months, or for 20 months appeared in the constellation of Centaurus (which is not now visible from the continental US, but only from places farther south), roughly between alpha and beta Cen a shell of radio emission, G135.4-2.3, is the likely remant of this explosion. There is also weak optical emission in partial shell, called RCW 86. hard to guess the type SN 393 record from China (two almost identical texts) visible for 7 months appeared within the curve of the tail of Scorpius any one of three radio sources in that area could be its remnant no information on the type SN 1006 Very bright! Probably brightest SN on the record, at mag -9? records from China (6 texts), Japan (7 texts), Korea (1 text), Arab dominions (5 texts), Europe (4 + 2 possible references). appeared in Lupus (a southern constellation); texts provide a good position we identify radio source PKS 1459-41 as remant of this SN; thin wisps of optical emission have been reported X-ray spectral measurements of element abundances and radio measurements of the progenitor's wind imply this was a type Ia SN 1054 records from China (5 texts, 4 independent) and Japan (3 texts, 2 independent) visible in daylight for 23 days, probably mag = -5 visible at night for about 20 months appeared in Taurus, at position of modern Crab Nebula very well known radio, optical, X-ray remnant: Crab Nebula type II SN 1181 records from China (2 texts) and Japan (6 texts) visible at night for about 185 days, peak around mag = -1? appeared in Cassiopeia radio source 3C58 may be remnant from this event hard to tell if type Ia or II SN 1572 aka Tycho's supernova, because he studied it VERY carefully records from China (2 texts), Korea (1 text) and Europe (lots) visible at night for 15 months, peak around mag = -4 appeared in Cassiopeia Tycho's precise measurements show that radio source G120.1+1.4 is the remnant, and optical emission has been seen, too. type Ia SN 1604 aka Kepler's supernova, because he studied it carefully records from China (3 texts), Korea (1 very good text), Europe visible at night for 366 days, peak around mag = -3 appeared in Ophiuchus, in the Milky Way Kepler's measurements show that the radio source 3C 358 is the remnant, and optical emission has been identified probably type Ia (based on X-ray spectra)And here the rough positions of these events on the sky:
SN Right Ascension (1950) Declination constellation ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 185 14h 32m -60 20 Centaurus 393 17h 11m -38 20 Scorpius 1006 14h 59m -41 45 Lupus 1054 05h 31m 31s +21 59 Taurus 1181 02h 02m +64 37 Cassiopeia 1572 00h 22m 30s +63 51 Cassiopeia 1604 17h 27m 42s -21 27 Ophiuchus